Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV) is one of eight herpesviruses known to infect humans and vertebrates. VZV only affects humans and commonly causes chickenpox in children teens and young adults and herpes zoster (shingles) in adults and rarely in children. VZV is known by many names including chickenpox virus varicella virus zoster virus and human herpesvirus type 3 (HHV-3).
VZV infects the nerves and causes a wide variety of symptoms. After the primary infection (chickenpox) the virus goes dormant in the nerves including the cranial nerve ganglia dorsal root ganglia and autonomic ganglia. Many years after the patient has recovered from chickenpox VZV can reactivate to cause a number of neurologic conditions
Immediate early protein 62 (IE62) of is major transcriptional transactivator of VZV. It may interact with and recruit specific components of the general transcription machinery to viral promoters and stabilize their formation for transcription initiation. It interacts with IE4 and IE63 and with host USF and Sp1.It negatively regulates its own transcription. This immediate early protein may be necessary in virion for viral pathogenesis.
IE62 consists of 1310 amino acids with 140 kDa mass. It is phosphorylated by ORF66 protein kinase on Ser-686 and Ser-722. It is also phosphorylated by ORF47 protein kinase and human CSNK2A1/CKII.SK